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          Production technology of snack food (puffed food)

          文章出處:未知作者:admin人氣:發表時間:2018-07-25 11:59【

          The types and principles of puffed food
          Puffed food, also known as extruded food, sprayed food and light food, is a new type of food developed in the world in recent years. It is made of grain, bean, potato, vegetable and so on. Through the processing of puffing equipment, it produces a variety of food with exquisite appearance, rich nutrition, crisp and fragrant beauty. Therefore, it has formed a large category of food uniquely.
          Because of its simple structure, easy operation, less investment and faster income, the expanded food has developed very rapidly and showed great vitality.
          Because of the different use and the different machinery equipment in Ji'nan, there are three types of puffed food: one is using extruded extruder to produce small food with corn and potato as raw material; two is extruded extruder to produce tissue protein food (plant meat) with plant protein as raw material; three is grain, legume or potato. Raw materials are extruded into a staple food. In addition to trial production of indirect heating extruder, a variety of puffed foods were also made from refined grain puffing powder.
          1. staple food: pancakes, bread, steamed bread, pancakes, etc.
          2. Camellia: puffed face tea.
          3. military food: compressed biscuits.
          4. pastry: peach cake, stove fruit, eight pieces, crisp pastry, moon cake, printed cake, egg rolls and so on.
          5. small food: rice sugar, ice cream and so on.
          6. cold food: the stuffing of ice cream and ice lolly.
          In the above food, some varieties, such as puffed tea, printing cake and compressed biscuit, are all made of bulking coarse grain, and some varieties are only mixed with a certain proportion of coarse grain.
          Although expansion technology belongs to physical processing technology, it has its own characteristics. Expansion not only changes the shape and state of raw materials, but also changes the molecular structure and properties of raw materials, and forms some new substances.
          After placing the grain in the puffer, with the heating and pressure, the moisture in the grain is overheated and the grain itself becomes soft. When it reaches a certain high pressure and opens the cover of the puffer, the high pressure rapidly becomes the normal pressure. At this time, the moisture in the grain is overheated and suddenly explode in the instantaneous vaporization. The water molecules can expand about 2000 times, and the huge expansion pressure not only destroys the external morphology of grain grains, but also breaks the internal molecular structure of grain grains, and cuts the insoluble long chain starch into water-soluble short chain starch, dextrin and sugar, thus the insoluble matter in the expanded food is reduced, and the water-soluble substances are increased. See the following table in detail:
          Change table of water leach in food before and after expansion (%)
          Corn high beam rice
          After puffing, before puffing and expansion.
          Water leach 6.35 36.82 2.3 27.32
          Starch 62.36 57.54 68.86 64.04
          Dextrin 0.76 3.24 0.24 1.92
          Reducing sugar 0.76 1.18 0.63 0.93
          Apart from the increase of water-soluble substances, a part of starch becomes dextrin and sugar after expansion. The process of expansion changes the state and nature of material material, and produces new substances, that is to say, the physical means of expansion is used to make the chemical properties of the products change. This phenomenon gives a new topic for the research of the theory of food processing.
          The process of decomposing starch into dextrin and sugar in food is usually occurring in the digestive organs of people, that is, when people eat food into the mouth, the amylase can be used to break up the starch, become dextrin, maltose, and eventually become glucose absorbed by the human body. And the expansion technology has played a role in amylase, that is, when food has not yet entered the mouth, it makes the starch cracking process. In this sense, the expansion equipment is equal to the extension of the people's digestive organs. This increases the digestion process of human food and improves the digestibility and absorption of puffed food. Therefore, it can be considered that puffing technology is a very scientific and ideal food processing technology.
          Another characteristic of puffing technology is that it can make starch completely alpha. In the past, hot processing techniques such as baking, cooking and so on could also make the raw starch of foods, that is, beta starch, become alpha starch. However, after a period of time, these products have been expanded into alpha starch, which is called "retrogradation" or "aging". This is a common phenomenon in all starchy foods. These foods, after aging, hardened and deteriorated their appetite and reduced digestibility. This is due to the lack of starch alpha.
          The expansion technology can make starch completely alpha, and the already changed alpha starch can not be restored to beta starch after being placed, so the food keeps soft, good flavor and high digestibility, which is another characteristic of the expansion technology which is superior to other physical processing methods. It opens up a new processing field for coarse grain.
          1. improved taste and taste: coarse grain after swelling, rough tissue structure is damaged, can not see the sample of coarse grain, can not eat the taste of coarse grain, soft taste, taste improvement, good taste.
          2. easy to eat: after the expansion of coarse grain, has become a cooked food, can directly use boiled water, or made into compressed food, or a little processing can be made into a variety of food. Eat room and save time. As long as the food sector, factories, mines, enterprises, institutions and schools supply puffed powder, it can be processed and modulated in the family or the collective canteen to become a real convenient food.
          3. the preservation rate and digestibility of nutrients are high. The preservation rate of nutrients in puffing process is shown in table 1~3. According to the data from the table, the preservation rate and the digestibility of the puffed food are high, which shows that the expansion process has no effect on the nutrition of the food, and its digestibility is higher than that of the unexpanded food.
          4. easy to store: grain expansion, equal to a high temperature sterilization, the moisture content of the puffed powder is reduced to less than 10%. This low moisture content limits the insects and molds, strengthens their stability in storage, is suitable for long-term storage, and is suitable for preparing military grain and improving the quality of food.
          5. price is cheap: the application of indirect heating machine, every kilogram of corn is processed into puffed powder, processing is about 6 points, that is to say, the price of corn flour per kilogram is 2 angles 6 cents. China's local workers each month according to 10 kilograms of coarse grain, each person's monthly expenditure increased by only 6 points, which is affordable in the economy. If the continuous automatic expansion machine is developed in the future, the processing fee can be further reduced.

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